The Kingdom of Spain is a country whose territory is mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula, in the far south-west of Europe. It comprises a total area of 504,642 km² and includes territories on both the mainland peninsula and nearby islands, such as the Canary Islands and Balearic Islands, the cities of Ceuta and Melilla and the so-called "Plazas de Soberanía" Places of Sovereignty in North Africa.

Given its geographic location, Spain has experienced a rich and varied history. The first modern humans settled in what is now Spain over 35,000 years ago. The Roman conquest began in 218 BC and led to a far-reaching process of cultural assimilation, the repercussions of which continue to be felt today. Following the fall of the Western Empire, Hispania was conquered by Germanic tribes (Visigoths, Suevi and Vandals) and then by the Moors. The Moorish presence on the peninsula lasted until 1492 and the fall of the Nasrid Kingdom of Granada. The marriage of the Catholic Kings led to a dynastic union between the territories of the Crown of Castile and the Crown of Aragon. After the discovery and conquest of America, Spain became the leading powerhouse in Europe and formed a great empire that extended across four continents. The Spanish presence in America forged strong ties between the two shores of the Atlantic, with Spanish becoming a common language shared by over 500 million people.